The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (Azerbaijani: Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası; Turkish: Nahçıvan Özerk Cumhuriyeti or Nahçıvan Muhtar Cumhuriyeti; Armenian: Նախիջևանի Ինքնավար Հանրապետություն; Russian: Нахичеванская Автономная Республика; Persian: جمهوری خودمختار نخجوان), known simply as Nakhchivan, is a landlocked exclave of Azerbaijan. The 5,500 km² region borders Armenia (221 km), Turkey (9 km) and Iran (179 km). Its capital is Nakhchivan City, home to the Nakhchivan State University.
According to Movses Khorenatsi, the territory of Nakhichevan region had been part of the Ancient Armenian Kingdom as early as from the 6th century B.C. In his description of the deeds of the Armenian King Tigran Yervandyan the historian notes that the king “settled his wife and many maidens of his family together with the youths and numerous captured people in the eastern side of the great mountain which reached the borders of Goghtn, i.e., in Tambat, Oskiokh, Dajguin and other settlements. These people were also given three small towns, Khram, Jhukhu, Khoshakunik, as well as the valley on the opposite bank of the river from Ajhanakan to the fortress of Nakhichevan” (cf. “History of Armenia by Moses Khorenatsi”, 1858). The boundary stone with the Aramian inscription of the Armenian King Artashes I (189-160 B.C.) found on the foothill of Ishkhanasar, as well as other inscriptions found in the region around the Lake Sevan attributed to the same king confirm that in the 2nd century B.C. the District of Syunik constituted part of the Ancient Armenia (cf.: A.G. Perikhanyan, “Aramian Inscription from Zangezur”, Historical-Philological Magazine, 1965, No 4; A. Ya. Borisov “Inscriptions of Artaxia (Artashes), King of Armenia, 1946, No 2).