Western Armenia, also referred to as Turkish Armenia, or Ottoman Armenia is a term coined following the Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829 to refer to the Armenian-populated historical regions of the Ottoman Empire that remained under Ottoman rule after the eastern part was ceded to the Russian Empire.

Western Armenia corresponds to Six Vilayets (vilâyat-ı sitte); the vilayets of Erzurum, Van, Bitlis, Diyarbekir, Kharput, and Sivas.[1] The Armenian borders drawn by American president Woodrow Wilson for the Treaty of Sèvres included parts of the vilayets of Erzurum, Van and Bitlis which are all part of Western Armenia. Although the treaty was recognized by both Turkey and Armenia, it never came into affect. The treaty of Lausanne anulled the previous treaty even though it was not signed by Armenia. For this same reason, some Armenians claim those lands, which include some Western Armenian regions, to be legitimately part of the present Republic of Armenia.

The distinct Western Armenian dialect of the Armenian language is spoken primarily in Turkey, the Levant and in the Armenian diaspora. In some parts of the diaspora, the Armenian schools, such as L'École Arménienne Sourp Hagop and the Armenian Sisters Academy instruct Western Armenian to the students, instead of Eastern Armenian, the official dialect of the Republic of Armenia.

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